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HAZOP Studies

What is a HAZOP?


~~~~~We are INDEPENDENT HAZOP Facilitators ~~~~


HAZARD AND OPERABILITY STUDY (HAZOP'S) is a systematic procedure of identifying HAZARDs; it  is carried out by a small and experienced team of process design engineers, operating personnel, engineers from various disciplines (piping, mechanical, electrical etc) on a need basis, vendor representative for package units and experts in specific disciplines.


The HAZOP study can be conducted at various stages of a project, ideally it should be carried out at the initial set of preliminary design process flow sheets, in order identify to potential risques at an early stage. Once the PIDs are ready (issued for client review, rev0), they should be HAZOPed before engineering commences, (issued for engineering status). These PIDs can be 'issued for HAZOP' as a good practice. The next stage for HAZOP is before construction commences on site, (issued for construction status). Finally, the HAZOP must be done on as-built status PIDs. 


The complexity of the HAZOP and the participating team composition increases with the advancement of the project and as the PIDs are issued from one stage to the next.


HAZOP procedure is carried out by applying a set of guide words. All HAZARDS associated with a deviation should be identified together with ways in which it can be prevented.


In a project, each section of the unit should be HAZOPed, considering all the P&IDs, in consultation with the HAZOP team. The utilities should be take as a seperate block, although feed lines to the unit need to be considered.




Our Offer

We offer a full range of HAZOP management activities,

·         HAZOP lead and facilitation,

·         scribing,

·         reporting and periodic report submission,

·         follow-up of pending action items,

·         closing of open action items,


·         project management approvals and information etc.



Our Experience


As a lead process safety engineer with Bechtel Limited, UK, Umesh Goel has chaired and facilitated several HAZOPs. These HAZOPs were conducted for a range of different hydrocarbon applications ranging from refinery process units to Natural Gas plants, hydrogen plants and allied areas.


Hazard and Operability Study (HAZOP)





HAZOP is a systematic method of identifying process hazards. A HAZOP is usually carried out by a small team of experienced design, operating and laboratory personnel. It can be conducted on preliminary process design flow sheets or detailed P&I diagrams at the final design phase. The procedure generates question on the design by applying Guide Words, these question should expose every conceivable way in which the design can deviate from the intention. Every hazard associated with a deviation should be identified, together with ways in which the hazard can be prevented.







Guide Words






The complete negation of the design intentions

No part of the intention is achieved, and nothing else happens



Quantitative increases in any relevant physical parameters

Example: Flow Rates, Temperature, heat, reaction



Quantitative decreases



A qualitative increase

All intentions are achieved together with some additional activity



A qualitative decrease

Only some of the intention are achieved



The logical opposite of the intention

Example: reverse flow, reverse chemical reaction



Complete substitution

No part of the original intention is achieved, something quiet different happens



In addition to the above guide words; the following need to be applied once to each entire unit operation:

Abnormal Operation, Sampling, Service failure, instrumentation/ESD system, Relief, maintenance, Spare equipment





Each system or equipment is divided into sub-systems of multiple process lines across multiple pieces of equipment by the HAZOP team leader of the review team. The selected system is identified by a review node which will be numbered and colour coded for easy reference on the relevant HAZOP master P&ID, prior to the review. Worksheets will be referenced clearly to the node and be used during the review.

An action item is entered on the worksheet if it is the team consensus that existing precautions, protection, reliability or ease of maintenance is inadequate or there is a concern. Recommendations may be recorded to suggest a prevention or mitigation of the consequences. Recommendations and actions should be completed and closed –out before issuing of IFF P&IDs. An action sheet is generated for each action item for recording and tracking response. HAZOP Action Items Status Report will be used to track and summarize the status of all action items.

Recommendations and actions that are not closed before IFF P&ID are to be carried over to EPC phase of the PROJECT. A register for recommendations and actions that are to be carried over to EPC phase shall be created.





Various Computer software package like PHA Works 5 by Prima Tech are used for recording the discussions during the reviews, reporting and tracking the HAZOP reviews.

The recording methodology of the FEED HAZOP review discussions and conclusions shall be “by exception”. The results of the review shall be recorded under headings of guide word that generate significant consequences to demonstrate the process deviation, its possible cause, possible consequences, risk ranking, safeguards, action required, responsible engineer or discipline, and the actions actually taken. Guide Words that do not generate significant consequences are not recorded on the HAZOP record.

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